手把手制作一个vcpkg的安装包及port file相关说明

本文 http://blog.codeg.cn/post/blog/2017-05-28-how-to-build-a-vcpkg/ 是作者zieckey在研究和学习相关内容时所做的笔记,欢迎广大朋友指正和交流! 版权所有,欢迎转载和分享,但请保留此段声明。

0. 前言

Windows平台的程序包的依赖管理一直以来都是个大难题。之前有NuGet,现在有vcpkg。 本文的重点是先介绍一下vcpkg的特性,然后以一个实际例子说明,说明如何创建一个vcpkg安装包。

1. vcpkg简介

vcpkg是为了在windows平台能够方便获取一个C或者C++库。当前还处于预览版状态。不过已经有很多常见的库了,例如:

  • openssl
  • boost
  • zlib
  • glog
  • libevent
  • curl

等等,很多知名的C/C++库都已经提供vcpkg安装包。

2. vcpkg安装

首先,我们的windows系统必须安装有下列软件

  • Visual Studio 2015 Update 3 or
  • Visual Studio 2017
  • CMake 3.8.0 or higher (note: downloaded automatically if not found)
  • git.exe available in your path

然后,我们在windows命令行终端上运行:

d:\git> git clone https://github.com/Microsoft/vcpkg
d:\git> cd vcpkg
d:\git\vcpkg> .\bootstrap-vcpkg.bat
d:\git\vcpkg> .\vcpkg integrate install

3. 使用vcpkg获取C/C++库

使用vcpkg --help命令查看联席帮助文档:

D:\git\vcpkg>.\vcpkg --help
Commands:
  vcpkg search [pat]              Search for packages available to be built
  vcpkg install <pkg>...          Install a package
  vcpkg remove <pkg>...           Uninstall a package
  vcpkg remove --outdated         Uninstall all out-of-date packages
  vcpkg list                      List installed packages
  vcpkg update                    Display list of packages for updating
  vcpkg hash <file> [alg]         Hash a file by specific algorithm, default SHA512

  vcpkg integrate install         Make installed packages available user-wide. Requires admin privileges on first use
  vcpkg integrate remove          Remove user-wide integration
  vcpkg integrate project         Generate a referencing nuget package for individual VS project use

  vcpkg export <pkg>... [opt]...  Exports a package
  vcpkg edit <pkg>                Open up a port for editing (uses %EDITOR%, default 'code')
  vcpkg import <pkg>              Import a pre-built library
  vcpkg create <pkg> <url>
             [archivename]        Create a new package
  vcpkg owns <pat>                Search for files in installed packages
  vcpkg cache                     List cached compiled packages
  vcpkg version                   Display version information
  vcpkg contact                   Display contact information to send feedback

Options:
  --triplet <t>                   Specify the target architecture triplet.
                                  (default: %VCPKG_DEFAULT_TRIPLET%, see 'vcpkg help triplet')

  --vcpkg-root <path>             Specify the vcpkg root directory
                                  (default: %VCPKG_ROOT%)

For more help (including examples) see the accompanying README.md.

这里我们可以看到,很多有用的命令

  • vcpkg search [pattern]
    • 搜索一个C/C++库
  • vcpkg install [pkg]
    • 安装一个C/C++库
  • vcpkg remove [pkg]
    • 卸载(删除)一个C/C++库

下面举例,安装curl这个常用的C语言写的网络库。

D:\git\vcpkg>.\vcpkg install curl
The following packages will be built and installed:
    curl:x86-windows
  * libssh2:x86-windows
Additional packages (*) will be installed to complete this operation.
Building package libssh2:x86-windows...
-- CURRENT_INSTALLED_DIR=D:/git/vcpkg/installed/x86-windows
-- DOWNLOADS=D:/git/vcpkg/downloads
-- CURRENT_PACKAGES_DIR=D:/git/vcpkg/packages/libssh2_x86-windows
-- CURRENT_BUILDTREES_DIR=D:/git/vcpkg/buildtrees/libssh2
-- CURRENT_PORT_DIR=D:/git/vcpkg/ports/libssh2/.
-- Downloading https://www.libssh2.org/download/libssh2-1.8.0.tar.gz...
-- Downloading https://www.libssh2.org/download/libssh2-1.8.0.tar.gz... OK
-- Testing integrity of downloaded file...
-- Testing integrity of downloaded file... OK
-- Extracting source D:/git/vcpkg/downloads/libssh2-1.8.0.tar.gz
-- Extracting done
-- Applying patch D:/git/vcpkg/ports/libssh2/0001-Fix-UWP.patch
-- Applying patch D:/git/vcpkg/ports/libssh2/0001-Fix-UWP.patch done
-- Configuring x86-windows-rel
-- Configuring x86-windows-rel done
-- Configuring x86-windows-dbg
-- Configuring x86-windows-dbg done
-- Package x86-windows-rel
-- Package x86-windows-rel done
-- Package x86-windows-dbg
-- Package x86-windows-dbg done
-- Installing: D:/git/vcpkg/packages/libssh2_x86-windows/share/libssh2/copyright
-- Performing post-build validation
-- Performing post-build validation done
Building package libssh2:x86-windows... done
Installing package libssh2:x86-windows...
Installing package libssh2:x86-windows... done
Building package curl:x86-windows...
-- CURRENT_INSTALLED_DIR=D:/git/vcpkg/installed/x86-windows
-- DOWNLOADS=D:/git/vcpkg/downloads
-- CURRENT_PACKAGES_DIR=D:/git/vcpkg/packages/curl_x86-windows
-- CURRENT_BUILDTREES_DIR=D:/git/vcpkg/buildtrees/curl
-- CURRENT_PORT_DIR=D:/git/vcpkg/ports/curl/.
-- Downloading https://github.com/curl/curl/archive/curl-7_51_0.tar.gz...
-- Downloading https://github.com/curl/curl/archive/curl-7_51_0.tar.gz... OK
-- Testing integrity of downloaded file...
-- Testing integrity of downloaded file... OK
-- Extracting source D:/git/vcpkg/downloads/curl-7.51.0.tar.gz
-- Extracting done
-- Applying patch D:/git/vcpkg/ports/curl/0001_cmake.patch
-- Applying patch D:/git/vcpkg/ports/curl/0001_cmake.patch done
-- Applying patch D:/git/vcpkg/ports/curl/0002_fix_uwp.patch
-- Applying patch D:/git/vcpkg/ports/curl/0002_fix_uwp.patch done
-- Configuring x86-windows-rel
-- Configuring x86-windows-rel done
-- Configuring x86-windows-dbg
-- Configuring x86-windows-dbg done
-- Package x86-windows-rel
-- Package x86-windows-rel done
-- Package x86-windows-dbg
-- Package x86-windows-dbg done
-- Installing: D:/git/vcpkg/packages/curl_x86-windows/share/curl/copyright
-- Performing post-build validation
-- Performing post-build validation done
Building package curl:x86-windows... done
Installing package curl:x86-windows...
Installing package curl:x86-windows... done

可以看到,安装curl所需的依赖安装包libssh2也被自动安装处理好了。这类似与Linux系统下面的yum工具,自动处理rpm包的依赖关系,非常棒。

安装x64版本时,只需要在包名后面追加:x64-windows即可,例如 curl:x64-windows

D:\git\vcpkg>.\vcpkg install curl:x64-windows
The following packages will be built and installed:
    curl:x64-windows
  * libssh2:x64-windows
Additional packages (*) will be installed to complete this operation.
Building package zlib:x64-windows...
...

4. Step by step 手把手教你如何制作一个vcpkg安装包

a) 创建一个C库项目

这里我们直接创建项目 https://github.com/zieckey/vcpkgdemo

然后提交了一些简单的代码及 CMakeLists.txt。并打了一个tag 1.0。从而我们得到一个该项目源码的现在的地址 https://github.com/zieckey/vcpkgdemo/archive/1.0.zip

b) 从源头开始创建一个vcpkg安装包项目:Bootstrap with create

D:\git\vcpkg>.\vcpkg create vcpkgdemo https://github.com/zieckey/vcpkgdemo/archive/1.0.zip vcpkgdemo-1.0.zip
-- Generated portfile: D:\git\vcpkg\ports\vcpkgdemo\portfile.cmake
-- Generated CONTROL: D:\git\vcpkg\ports\vcpkgdemo\CONTROL
-- To launch an editor for these new files, run
--     .\vcpkg edit vcpkgdemo

我们可以看到,在D:\git\vcpkg\ports\目录下多出一个vcpkgdemo目录,并且目录下有两个文件portfile.cmakeCONTROL

c) 定制CONTROL文件

CONTROL文件原始内容如下:

Source: vcpkgdemo
Version:
Description:

我们修改为下面内容:

Source: vcpkgdemo
Version: 1.0
Description: A demo to show how to create a vcpkg package

d) 定制portfile.cmake文件

portfile.cmake文件原始内容如下:

# Common Ambient Variables:
#   CURRENT_BUILDTREES_DIR    = ${VCPKG_ROOT_DIR}\buildtrees\${PORT}
#   CURRENT_PACKAGES_DIR      = ${VCPKG_ROOT_DIR}\packages\${PORT}_${TARGET_TRIPLET}
#   CURRENT_PORT DIR          = ${VCPKG_ROOT_DIR}\ports\${PORT}
#   PORT                      = current port name (zlib, etc)
#   TARGET_TRIPLET            = current triplet (x86-windows, x64-windows-static, etc)
#   VCPKG_CRT_LINKAGE         = C runtime linkage type (static, dynamic)
#   VCPKG_LIBRARY_LINKAGE     = target library linkage type (static, dynamic)
#   VCPKG_ROOT_DIR            = <C:\path\to\current\vcpkg>
#   VCPKG_TARGET_ARCHITECTURE = target architecture (x64, x86, arm)
#

include(vcpkg_common_functions)
set(SOURCE_PATH ${CURRENT_BUILDTREES_DIR}/src/vcpkgdemo-1.0)
vcpkg_download_distfile(ARCHIVE
    URLS "https://github.com/zieckey/vcpkgdemo/archive/1.0.zip"
    FILENAME "vcpkgdemo-1.0.zip"
    SHA512 8805850856abdd39afdafa78dbd3a9e1d57d1a19a97579facf4571a0980799483574163e5f9a877a1fa38d541b7a0820c8ae7db61ae896803a8f89c5c22e386a
)
vcpkg_extract_source_archive(${ARCHIVE})

vcpkg_configure_cmake(
    SOURCE_PATH ${SOURCE_PATH}
    PREFER_NINJA # Disable this option if project cannot be built with Ninja
    # OPTIONS -DUSE_THIS_IN_ALL_BUILDS=1 -DUSE_THIS_TOO=2
    # OPTIONS_RELEASE -DOPTIMIZE=1
    # OPTIONS_DEBUG -DDEBUGGABLE=1
)

vcpkg_install_cmake()

# Handle copyright
#file(COPY ${SOURCE_PATH}/LICENSE DESTINATION ${CURRENT_PACKAGES_DIR}/share/vcpkgdemo)
#file(RENAME ${CURRENT_PACKAGES_DIR}/share/vcpkgdemo/LICENSE ${CURRENT_PACKAGES_DIR}/share/vcpkgdemo/copyright)

我们将其修改为下面内容:

include(vcpkg_common_functions)
set(SOURCE_PATH ${CURRENT_BUILDTREES_DIR}/src/vcpkgdemo-1.0)
vcpkg_download_distfile(ARCHIVE
    URLS "https://github.com/zieckey/vcpkgdemo/archive/1.0.zip"
    FILENAME "vcpkgdemo-1.0.zip"
    SHA512 5b526b848c05d9b30eac8aede6c6c19591baf45e601c54ed6a0aa40ae3f11545d9648f332fb991f9540e44cfc3fc3ea6dd6db3b6c9d8e076b74af08e9ac69740
)

message(STATUS "Begin to extract files ...")
vcpkg_extract_source_archive(${ARCHIVE})

message(STATUS "Building vcpkgdemo project ...")

vcpkg_configure_cmake(
    SOURCE_PATH ${SOURCE_PATH}
    OPTIONS -DCMAKE_TOOLCHAIN_FILE=D:/git/vcpkg/scripts/buildsystems/vcpkg.cmake -DEVPP_VCPKG_BUILD=ON
)

vcpkg_install_cmake()
file(MAKE_DIRECTORY ${CURRENT_PACKAGES_DIR}/share)
file(MAKE_DIRECTORY ${CURRENT_PACKAGES_DIR}/share/vcpkgdemo)

#remove duplicated files
file(REMOVE_RECURSE ${CURRENT_PACKAGES_DIR}/debug/include)

# remove not used cmake files
file(REMOVE_RECURSE ${CURRENT_PACKAGES_DIR}/debug/share )
file(REMOVE_RECURSE ${CURRENT_PACKAGES_DIR}/debug/lib/cmake )
file(REMOVE_RECURSE ${CURRENT_PACKAGES_DIR}/lib/cmake )

# Handle copyright
file(COPY ${SOURCE_PATH}/LICENSE DESTINATION ${CURRENT_PACKAGES_DIR}/share/vcpkgdemo)
file(RENAME ${CURRENT_PACKAGES_DIR}/share/vcpkgdemo/LICENSE ${CURRENT_PACKAGES_DIR}/share/vcpkgdemo/copyright)

message(STATUS "Installing done")

e) 测试

D:\git\vcpkg>.\vcpkg install vcpkgdemo
The following packages will be built and installed:
    vcpkgdemo:x86-windows
Building package vcpkgdemo:x86-windows...
-- CURRENT_INSTALLED_DIR=D:/git/vcpkg/installed/x86-windows
-- DOWNLOADS=D:/git/vcpkg/downloads
-- CURRENT_PACKAGES_DIR=D:/git/vcpkg/packages/vcpkgdemo_x86-windows
-- CURRENT_BUILDTREES_DIR=D:/git/vcpkg/buildtrees/vcpkgdemo
-- CURRENT_PORT_DIR=D:/git/vcpkg/ports/vcpkgdemo/.
-- Using cached D:/git/vcpkg/downloads/vcpkgdemo-1.0.zip
-- Testing integrity of cached file...
-- Testing integrity of cached file... OK
-- Begin to extract files ...
-- Extracting source D:/git/vcpkg/downloads/vcpkgdemo-1.0.zip
-- Extracting done
-- Building vcpkgdemo project ...
-- Configuring x86-windows-rel
-- Configuring x86-windows-rel done
-- Configuring x86-windows-dbg
-- Configuring x86-windows-dbg done
-- Package x86-windows-rel
-- Package x86-windows-rel done
-- Package x86-windows-dbg
-- Package x86-windows-dbg done
-- Installing done
-- Performing post-build validation
-- Performing post-build validation done
Building package vcpkgdemo:x86-windows... done
Installing package vcpkgdemo:x86-windows...
Installing package vcpkgdemo:x86-windows... done

如果不顺利,有错误发生的话,可以根据错误提示去 D:/git/vcpkg/buildtrees/vcpkgdemo 找错误日志,并解决。

f) 将D:\git\vcpkg\ports\vcpkgdemo整个目录提交到https://github.com/Microsoft/vcpkg

为了让这个vcpkg包能够被其世界上任何他人使用,我们必须将port file提交到https://github.com/Microsoft/vcpkg项目中。

也就是我们需要发起一个Pull Request到vcpkg的官方github地址 https://github.com/Microsoft/vcpkg

这里不再累述。

5. Step by step 手把手教你如何制作一个vcpkg安装包:实际案例

这里我们以evpp项目为例。evpp是一个基于libevent开发的现代化C++11高性能网络服务器,自带TCP/UDP/HTTP等协议的异步非阻塞式的服务器和客户端库。

第1步:从源头开始创建一个项目:Bootstrap with create

首先,我们需要有一个网络上可供下载的安装包地址,在这里我们选择 https://github.com/Qihoo360/evpp/archive/v0.5.0.zip 然后,我们需要为项目取一个好记的名字,最好是小写字母,这里我们选择 evpp 最后,使用vcpkg create创建一个项目模板

D:\git\vcpkg>.\vcpkg create evpp https://github.com/Qihoo360/evpp/archive/v0.5.0.zip evpp-0.5.0.zip
-- Generated portfile: D:\git\vcpkg\ports\evpp\portfile.cmake
-- Generated CONTROL: D:\git\vcpkg\ports\evpp\CONTROL
-- To launch an editor for these new files, run
--     .\vcpkg edit evpp

我们可以看到,在D:\git\vcpkg\ports\目录下多出一个evpp目录,并且目录下有两个文件portfile.cmakeCONTROL

第2步:定制CONTROL文件

CONTROL文件原始内容如下:

Source: evpp
Version:
Description:

我们修改为下面内容:

Source: evpp
Version: 0.5.0
Description: A modern C++ network library based on libevent for developing high performance network services in TCP/UDP/HTTP protocols.
Build-Depends: glog, libevent

注意上面的依赖库写法,evpp依赖两个项目 gloglibevent,所以写法是 Build-Depends: glog, libevent

第3步:定制portfile.cmake文件

portfile.cmake文件原始内容如下:

# Common Ambient Variables:
#   CURRENT_BUILDTREES_DIR    = ${VCPKG_ROOT_DIR}\buildtrees\${PORT}
#   CURRENT_PACKAGES_DIR      = ${VCPKG_ROOT_DIR}\packages\${PORT}_${TARGET_TRIPLET}
#   CURRENT_PORT DIR          = ${VCPKG_ROOT_DIR}\ports\${PORT}
#   PORT                      = current port name (zlib, etc)
#   TARGET_TRIPLET            = current triplet (x86-windows, x64-windows-static, etc)
#   VCPKG_CRT_LINKAGE         = C runtime linkage type (static, dynamic)
#   VCPKG_LIBRARY_LINKAGE     = target library linkage type (static, dynamic)
#   VCPKG_ROOT_DIR            = <C:\path\to\current\vcpkg>
#   VCPKG_TARGET_ARCHITECTURE = target architecture (x64, x86, arm)
#

include(vcpkg_common_functions)
set(SOURCE_PATH ${CURRENT_BUILDTREES_DIR}/src/evpp-0.5.0)
vcpkg_download_distfile(ARCHIVE
    URLS "https://github.com/Qihoo360/evpp/archive/v0.5.0.zip"
    FILENAME "evpp-0.5.0.zip"
    SHA512 fce8ebfec8b22b137f827a886f9ef658d70e060cef3950600ac42136d87cdd9357d78897348ed1d1c112c5e04350626fb218b02cba190a2c2a6fb81136eb2d7d
)
vcpkg_extract_source_archive(${ARCHIVE})

vcpkg_configure_cmake(
    SOURCE_PATH ${SOURCE_PATH}
    PREFER_NINJA # Disable this option if project cannot be built with Ninja
    # OPTIONS -DUSE_THIS_IN_ALL_BUILDS=1 -DUSE_THIS_TOO=2
    # OPTIONS_RELEASE -DOPTIMIZE=1
    # OPTIONS_DEBUG -DDEBUGGABLE=1
)

vcpkg_install_cmake()

# Handle copyright
#file(COPY ${SOURCE_PATH}/LICENSE DESTINATION ${CURRENT_PACKAGES_DIR}/share/evpp)
#file(RENAME ${CURRENT_PACKAGES_DIR}/share/evpp/LICENSE ${CURRENT_PACKAGES_DIR}/share/evpp/copyright)

我们将其修改为下面内容:

include(vcpkg_common_functions)

set(EVPP_VERSION 0.5.0)
set(EVPP_HASH fce8ebfec8b22b137f827a886f9ef658d70e060cef3950600ac42136d87cdd9357d78897348ed1d1c112c5e04350626fb218b02cba190a2c2a6fb81136eb2d7d)
set(SOURCE_PATH ${CURRENT_BUILDTREES_DIR}/src/evpp-${EVPP_VERSION})
vcpkg_download_distfile(ARCHIVE
    URLS "https://github.com/Qihoo360/evpp/archive/v${EVPP_VERSION}.zip"
    FILENAME "evpp-${EVPP_VERSION}.zip"
    SHA512 ${EVPP_HASH}
)


message(STATUS "Begin to extract files ...")
vcpkg_extract_source_archive(${ARCHIVE})

message(STATUS "Building evpp project ...")

vcpkg_configure_cmake(
    SOURCE_PATH ${SOURCE_PATH}
    OPTIONS -DCMAKE_TOOLCHAIN_FILE=D:/git/vcpkg/scripts/buildsystems/vcpkg.cmake -DEVPP_VCPKG_BUILD=ON
)

vcpkg_install_cmake()
file(MAKE_DIRECTORY ${CURRENT_PACKAGES_DIR}/share)
file(MAKE_DIRECTORY ${CURRENT_PACKAGES_DIR}/share/evpp)

#remove duplicated files
file(REMOVE_RECURSE ${CURRENT_PACKAGES_DIR}/debug/include)

# remove not used cmake files
file(REMOVE_RECURSE ${CURRENT_PACKAGES_DIR}/debug/share )
file(REMOVE_RECURSE ${CURRENT_PACKAGES_DIR}/debug/lib/cmake )
file(REMOVE_RECURSE ${CURRENT_PACKAGES_DIR}/lib/cmake )

# Handle copyright
file(COPY ${SOURCE_PATH}/LICENSE DESTINATION ${CURRENT_PACKAGES_DIR}/share/evpp)
file(RENAME ${CURRENT_PACKAGES_DIR}/share/evpp/LICENSE ${CURRENT_PACKAGES_DIR}/share/evpp/copyright)

message(STATUS "Installing done")

第4步:测试

D:\git\vcpkg>.\vcpkg install evpp
The following packages will be built and installed:
    evpp:x86-windows
Building package evpp:x86-windows...
-- CURRENT_INSTALLED_DIR=D:/git/vcpkg/installed/x86-windows
-- DOWNLOADS=D:/git/vcpkg/downloads
-- CURRENT_PACKAGES_DIR=D:/git/vcpkg/packages/evpp_x86-windows
-- CURRENT_BUILDTREES_DIR=D:/git/vcpkg/buildtrees/evpp
-- CURRENT_PORT_DIR=D:/git/vcpkg/ports/evpp/.
-- Using cached D:/git/vcpkg/downloads/evpp-0.5.0.zip
-- Testing integrity of cached file...
-- Testing integrity of cached file... OK
-- Begin to extract files ...
-- Extracting done
-- Building evpp project ...
-- Configuring x86-windows-rel
-- Configuring x86-windows-rel done
-- Configuring x86-windows-dbg
-- Configuring x86-windows-dbg done
-- Package x86-windows-rel
-- Package x86-windows-rel done
-- Package x86-windows-dbg
-- Package x86-windows-dbg done
-- Installing done
-- Performing post-build validation
-- Performing post-build validation done
Building package evpp:x86-windows... done
Installing package evpp:x86-windows...
Installing package evpp:x86-windows... done

第5步:将D:\git\vcpkg\ports\evpp整个目录提交到https://github.com/Microsoft/vcpkg

也就是我们需要发起一个Pull Request到vcpkg的官方github地址 https://github.com/Microsoft/vcpkg

这里不再累述。

6. 最后

evpp项目官网地址为:https://github.com/Qihoo360/evpp

vcpkg制作的安装包,已经提交Pull Request :https://github.com/Microsoft/vcpkg/pull/1177

vcpkgdemo的原始代码请见 https://github.com/zieckey/vcpkgdemo